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Home : Meteorology Last updated on: 24-Aug-2016

Meteorology

Meteorology application is one of the important areas of ISRO services. Weather forecasting using satellites received impetus when satellites were built to provide meteorological data covering the Indian region. The operational products included cloud cover, sea surface temperature, cloud motion vectors, outgoing longwave radiation, quantitative precipitation estimation, etc. The satellite data also helped in improving the skills in forecasting using weather prediction models. The need for a dedicated satellite for meteorology spurred the Indian Space Research Organization to launch Meteorological satellites.

INSAT series of multipurpose spacecraft have been providing meteorological services over Indian Ocean since early eighties through Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) instruments. Indigenous VHRR Payloads have been flown on INSAT-2A, 2B, 2E and INSAT-3A satellites. Kalpana-1 launched in 2002 was the first dedicated Meteorological satellite. Till recently VHRR instruments onboard KALPANA-1 and INSAT-3A are providing round the clock satellite imageries in three spectral bands to the users. The data reception, processing and product generation facilities are established for the existing missions at India Meteorological Department (IMD).Also KALPANA-1 & INSAT-3A has Data relay transponder (DRT) instrument, which receives meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data from automatic data collection platforms and augments the weather forecasting capabilities. SARAL and MEGHATROPIQUES are also providing valuable information regarding weather forecasting. INSAT-3D, which is an exclusive mission designed for enhanced meteorological observations and monitoring of land and ocean surfaces for weather forecasting and disaster warning, with State of art Meteorological Payloads (Imager & Sounder) along with the DRT was launched in 2013. The capabilities of INSAT systems are significantly enhanced with the availability of INSAT-3D data.

PROJECT LAUNCH DATE LAUNCH VEHICLE ORBIT PAYLOAD
INSAT-3DR 08-SEP-2016 GSLV-F05 Geostationary orbit /
74o East longitude
6 channel Imager
19 channel Sounder
Data Relay Transponder (DRT)
Satellite Aided Search & Rescue (S&SR) payloads
INSAT-3D 26-JUL-2013 ARIANE-5 Geostationary
82oE longitude
6 channel Imager,
19 channel Sounder,
Data Relay Transponder (DRT),
Satellite Aided Search & Rescue (S&SR) payloads
SARAL 25-FEB-2013 PSLV-C20 785 Km, Inclination 98.53 deg, Local time: 6PM Descending, Polar Sun synchronous Altika, Argos, C-Band Transponder MEGHA TROPIQUES 12-OCT-2011 PSLV-C18 867 Km with an inclination of 20 deg to the equator MADRAS,SAPHIR,ScaRaB & ROSA INSAT-3A 10-APR-2003 Ariane-5 Geostationary
93.5oE longitude
12 normal C band transponders,
6 extended C band transponders,
6 Ku band transponders
Very High Resolution Radiometer(VHRR),
Charge Coupled Device Camera
Data relay transponder(DRT)
Satellite Aided Search and Rescue (SAS and R) Transponders
METSAT (KALPANA-1) 12-SEP-2002 PSLV-C4 Geostationary
74oE longitude
VHRR imageries in visible, thermal infra red and WV bands
Weather Data Relay Transponder (DRT)
INSAT-2E 03-APR-1999 Ariane-4 Geostationary
83oE longitude
12 C Band channels,
5 Lower Extended C Band channels,
3 Channel Very High Resolution Radiometer(VHRR),
3 Channel Charge Coupled Device (CCD)
1 Data relay transponder(DRT)
1 Satellite Aided Search and Rescue (SAS and R) Transponders
INSAT-2B 23-JUL-1993 Ariane-4 Geostationary
93.5oE longitude
12 Normal C Band transponders,
6 Extended C Band transponders,
2 S Band transponders,
Very High Resolution Radiometer(VHRR)
1 Data Relay Transponder(DRT),
1 Satellite Aided Search and Rescue (S and SR) Transponders
INSAT-2A 10-JUL-1992 Ariane-4 Geostationary
74oE longitude
12 Normal C Band transponders,
6 Extended C Band transponders,
2 S Band transponders,
Very High Resolution Radiometer(VHRR)
1 Data Relay Transponder(DRT),
1 Satellite Aided Search and Rescue (S and SR) Transponders